In the following charts, daily updated temperature anomalies for distinct Earth entities, namely the ‘sea surface’ and the ‘2 meter air atmosphere’ are presented for different regions, alongside monthly updated anomalies in ‘sea ice extent’. Dashed lines correspond to the least square regression fits and trends, respectively.
The two charts below depict Global and North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on a daily basis over the past 40 years relative to the baseline y(x) = 0, representing the average for the period from 1982 to 2022. These anomalies reflect the differences in temperature from the mean. It is important to note that the analysis focuses solely on sea surface temperatures, and even extreme changes observed do not necessarily indicate overall increases or decreases in the heat content of the seas. Instead, they are primarily attributed to changes in stratification. Nevertheless, these temperature fluctuations provide evidence of the vast heat reservoir inherent in the oceans, wherein approximately 90% of the surplus solar radiation energy is sequestered. Once this energy reaches the ocean’s surface, it exerts substantial influences on air temperatures, land precipitation, storms, and various meteorological phenomena. Furthermore, it is essential to acknowledge that the baseline already accounts for a significant increase in sea surface temperature, as it represents the average of the past 40 years. Consequently, the actual values of the seas are notably higher than those depicted on the y‑axis.
Fig. 1–2: The source data was obtained from Climate Reanalyzer (https://ClimateReanalyzer.org), which is affiliated with the Climate Change Institute at the University of Maine. The original data was sourced from NOAA Optimum Interpolation SST (OISST) version 2.1. The anomalies were computed by industryfootprint.org. Daily update with the previous day’s data at 5:30 pm CET.
The six charts below illustrate daily air temperature anomalies at 2 meters above the surface over the past 43 years, relative to the baseline y(x) = 0, which represents the average for the period from 1979 to 2022. The data includes various regions: the overall global average, the Tropics, the Northern and Southern hemispheres, as well as the Arctic and Antarctic. Notably, the baseline already incorporates a significant increase in 2‑meter air temperature, encompassing the average of the past 43 years. As a result, for instance, the global average temperature anomaly for the year 2022 shown here is approximately only 0.3 degrees Celsius, whereas it is 1.2 degrees Celsius relative to the year 1850. Hence, to obtain the commonly used value for Global Warming, i.e. related to the pre-industrial reference period, about 0.9 to 1.0 degrees Celsius must therefore be added to the y‑values in first the diagram.
Fig. 3–8: The source data was obtained from Climate Reanalyzer (https://ClimateReanalyzer.org), which is affiliated with the Climate Change Institute at the University of Maine. The original data was sourced from NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2. The anomalies were computed by industryfootprint.org. Daily update with the previous day’s data at 10:30 am CET.
The two charts show monthly ice extent anomalies plotted as a time series of percent difference between the extent for the month in question and the mean for that month based on the January 1981 to December 2010 data. The Northern hemisphere ice extent anomalies demonstrate a persistent downward trend with minimal variations. In contrast, the Southern hemisphere ice extent anomalies exhibit fluctuations without a discernible trend until a notable and abrupt decrease occurred in the year 2023.
Fig. 9–10: Unlike the other charts, the two charts displayed are not processed here, but embedded directly from the website of The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado Boulder (https://nsidc.org). The data contained within is subject to monthly updates.